Bible Study – The Two Covenants

Bible Study

Bible Study – The Two Covenants

Scripture Reading: For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people. —Hebrews 8:10

Summary: The old covenant, established by God through the law given to Moses, was imperfect to bring about true righteousness in mankind. A new covenant was established through the sacrifice and priesthood of Jesus Christ which brought about true freedom and holiness.

Note: While general headings are given, supporting scriptures overlap under different headings.

I. The Old Covenant Established

A. Exodus 34:28 Words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments.
B. Deuteronomy 5:1-3 Covenant made with Israel.
C. Malachi 4:4 Law of Moses = Old Covenant.

II. Purpose of the Law

A. Galatians 3:24-25 The law was a schoolmaster.
B. Romans 7:7-8 “Without the law, sin was dead.”
C. Romans 3:19-20 The law is the knowledge of sin.

III. Allegory of the Two Covenants

Galatians 4:21-31 Hagar & Sarah; Ishmael & Isaac; Mount Sinai & Jerusalem; works & faith; bondage & freedom.

IV. A Superior & New Covenant Instituted

A. Jeremiah 31:31-33 A new covenant prophesied.
B. Hebrews 8:6-12 “I will make a new covenant.”
C. John 1:17 Grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.
D. Ephesians 2:13-16 Reconciled to God through Christ.
E. Matthew 26:27-28 Christ’s blood of the New Testament.
F. Galatians 3:13-14 Redeemed from the curse of the law.
G. John 8:31-36 Truth sets free.

V. Jesus—One Mediator/One Sacrifice/One Priest

A. Hebrews 9:11-16 Christ a superior offering and priest.
B. Hebrews 10:11-18 Jesus offered one sacrifice for sins forever.
C. Romans 6:10 Jesus the final sacrifice for sin.
D. Hebrews 7:20-22 Priesthood of Christ.
E. 1 Timothy 2:5 Jesus is the only mediator between God and men.

VI. Imperfection of the Law

A. Hebrews 10:1-4 The law was a shadow of good things to come.
B. Romans 8:3-4 The Law was weak (Hebrews 8:7; 10:11).
C. Hebrews 7:11-12 The Levitical priesthood and the law changed.
D. Hebrews 7:17-19 Disannulling of the commandments.

VII. Old Covenant Passed Away

A. Hebrews 10:9-10 First covenant taken away.
B. Hebrews 8:13 Old covenant replaced with a new covenant.
C. Romans 6:14 Ye are not under the law.
D. Romans 7:6 Delivered from the law.

VIII. Fulfillment of the Law

A. Matthew 5:17 Jesus came to fulfill the law.
B. Romans 13:8-10 Love is the fulfilling of the law.

IX. A Higher Standard of Living Under the New Covenant

A. Matthew 5:31-48 “It hath been said…but I say unto you.”

X. True Righteousness Through Faith

A. Galatians 2:16 Justified by faith in Jesus Christ.
B. Romans 9:30-32 Righteousness is of faith not by works of the law.
C. Galatians 5:2-4 Christ is made of no effect through keeping the law.


Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ…. —Galatians 2:16